Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Interpretation Of PPD Skin Testing (Tuberculin Skin Test)



An 80 Year old female living in nursing home comes to her doctor for the interpretation of her tuberculosis (TB) skin test. 5-tuberculin unit injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) was interpreted as 0 mm diameter of induration after 48 hours.

What should be the next step?

A) Repeat the PPD now.
B) Repeat the PPD in 2 weeks.
C) Repeat the PPD in 1 year.
D) Declare the patient free of TB.
E) Obtain a chest x-ray.

Answer And Discussion: Discussion:
The correct answer is “B.”(Repeat the PPD in 2 weeks.)

 Because the prevalence of a positive PPD(Mantoux test) doubles between the first and second tests in initial non responders, the U.S. Public Health Task Force recommends a two-step PPD by the Mantoux method for screening high-risk populations (e.g., persons living in nursing homes). If
the first PPD is negative, a second test should be performed approximately 2 weeks later in order to detect the “booster phenomenon.”
Individuals admitted to a nursing home with a positive PPD and no symptoms of active TB may be presumed to have a distant history of infection.

The PPD is repeated 2 weeks later and is interpreted again as 0 mm diameter of induration after 48 hours. The patient is reassured that her tuberculin test is negative.
What would most accurately represent a positive tuberculin skin test in THIS patient?

A) Erythema 5 mm in diameter.
B) Induration 5–10 mm in diameter.
C) Erythema of 10 mm in diameter.
D) Induration 10 mm in diameter.
E) Erythematous induration of any size.

Answer And Discussion:

The correct answer is “D.” (Induration 10 mm in diameter. )

Routine screening is not recommended for low-risk patients (e.g., community dwelling individuals from a low-risk country).
Screen only the following:

  • contacts of those with TB, 
  • HIV infected patients, 
  • IV drug users, 
  • those with predisposing factors to TB infection (diabetes, immunosuppressive drugs, lung cancer, etc.), 
  • foreign-born individuals arriving in the United States within the last 5 years, 
  • health-care workers, 
  • nursing home and other institutionalized individuals and the homeless. 
Measure the induration and not the erythema. The definition of a positive PPD changes with the population tested.


3 comments:

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  2. Hello, my name is Betty. i was diagnosed of HIV virus 4 years back. Before then, i was dating this Derrick guy. we had something great going on. Our love life only lasted for 8 months. the sixth and seven month of our relationship, i began feeling very weak every now and then. But i never suspected anything until I kept on experiencing different symptoms like having sore throats, constant headache, body weakness e.t.c. I decided to go for a medical check up. I was tested HIV positive. when the doctor broke the news to me, it was as if my whole world had crumbled. it dawned on me then that Derrick has been lying to me. i was very mad to an extent i almost committed suicide. But there was nothing i could do, other than weep and weep. ever since then, i have been spending heavily on medications, going from one medical clinic or the other so I can look healthy. Though since i was a kid, i love herbs a lot. i take herbal tea with grandma while growing so i am quite familiar with herbs. early last year, i was on the internet and on a particular health blog, to check for herbal medication as alternative. I saw many comments and read many testimonies. Until i came across a particular testimony on how Dr.ugo cured a patient from herpes simplex virus using pure natural herbs. i reached out to the doctor because I also was thinking Herpes had no cure. I told him about my HIV status.He encouraged me not to panic that he will help me get my deliverance. he prepared some herbs and sent them to me. The herbs were in four 70ml bottles and I took them morning and night. i used as he directed, and in less than three weeks, i started having appetite to eat plenty of food and i gained back my strength. the fourth week,I consumed all the herbal meds. He encouraged me to go for a test which i did. This time, the result was negative. I quickly contacted the doctor and informed him of the news. I immediately asked him to prepare for Derrick too. He did and sent it. Today, me and Derrick are HIV free. All thanks goes to God Almighty for healing us through Dr.Ugo. if you are having any kind of sickness at all, Dr.Ugo is the right person to talk to and i assure you, you will be glad you did. His email: ugoherbalhome@gmail.com you can also write him on WhatsApp +2348104990619.

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  3. Nice blog
    Have been totally convinced that HIV,and many others dangerous diseases can be best cured using the Herbal Medicine. Dr.Akpu the great and powerful herbalist cured me with his Herbal remedy. I'm Linda,15 years from Texas. I was born with HIV. I lost parents at my teenager age when I was 4th. I had to grew up with my mum only Sister, whom I loved so much. She was so worried about my life as my condition was her mature problem in life. I had taken lots of antiviral treatment to get ride of the virus not believing what there said HIV has no cure. I was on the internet when i came across blogs of testimony about a lady who where cured of a 7 years diagnose of Herpes by this powerful Herbalist, Dr.Akpu.I wrote down his mail @ Dr.akpupowerherbscenter@gmail.com
    I told my Aunt,luckily it was the same Dr,we where referred to few months back by my pastor in church whom members have being testifying about of his cure We did contacted him and explained my problem to him.He prepared the medicine and sent to me with details of how to use and apply. After a while, I began to feel more strong than never before, I felt so lucky and happy when my Doctor congratulated me that he could found no HIV virus again in me. I knew I was free cos my body was so strong. His herbal medicine should have saved my parents life, i said!
    Thanks so much for reading my article, you should share your testimony if you have cure as well
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